Thursday, December 18, 2014

ऐसी हो कल की सुबह

हूँ बैठा मैं इंतज़ार में,
कि वो दिन भी आएगा,
जब देकर सब को ही खुशियाँ,
ये दिन यूँ ही ढल जाएगा।
खिलते फ़ूलों जैसे ही,
सबके चेहरे खिलने लगें।
मुस्कुराहटों की आस में,
अपनी नीदों से हम जगें।

और हमें मिले जीने की वजह।
ऐसी हो कल की सुबह।

सोते हुए सपनें बोलें कि,
अब और न इनको सोना है।
मैले कल की चादर में नहीं,
एक नए लिबास में होना है।
हर फतह की दावेदार ये,
अपनी राहों में चल पड़ें।
उम्मीदें हैं जो इनसे जुड़ी,
इन्हें साकार ही होना है।

दे इन्हें आगे बढ़ने की ज़िरह,
ऐसी हो कल की सुबह।  

Wednesday, September 24, 2014

Just fading away.

These are few lines that I express about the conduct of the human being and its impact on nature.

Is it fire in the Sun that just sweats our day?
Is it water in the ocean that has left the bay?
If its price of what we did or what we intend
we are making this nature just fading away.
just fading away.
just fading away
Is it silence of the birds that we cant bear?
Devoid of grey clouds, this sky is clear.
Now its roads and brown fields that always appear.
Its the warning of Almighty that the doom is near.
Why don't we get the message its fading away?
just fading away.
just fading away.

Sunday, September 21, 2014

Notable Role (13/1000): Shahrukh Khan (Dil Se..)

Its an open secret that the fans of Salman Khan and Aamir Khan don't like the progressive news of Shahrukh Khan and criticize him for some reasons that need not be discussed here. Whatever the fans of Salman or Aamir argue, I say only one thing - Shahrukh Khan is neither famous for charity (as that of Being Human) nor he runs the shows of public welfare like Satyamev Jayate. Then what is the reason that makes him hold the position of King Khan? 
Obviously, its his acting. And Dil Se.. is the evidence of it. This movie, being a romantic thriller, puts before us the love story of two persons in the backdrop of terrorism.
The fans of Shahrukh Khan must use his acting in this movie to make his opponents tight lipped on this argument.
Here are few scenes of his memorable acting:

Shahrukh Khan (Amar) as a Radio Jockey In the All India Radio Station.

CBI Investigation with Amar.

Amar and Meghna's confrontation.

Must Watch: Masoom (1983).

The Indian film industry has been bestowed with such talented and adept actors and directors, it becomes obvious after you watch the year 1983 movie Masoom, which was adaption of the novel Man, Woman and Child (1980) written by Erich Segal.
The movie has been directed by the internationally renowned director Shekhar Kapur. The other renowned names that add to its glory are Naseeruddin Shah and Shabana Azmi. So, obviously, this movie has to have something special. Well, my reason for watching this movie is neither of them but the song Tujhse naraaz nahi zindagi (which has the mesmerized voice of Lataji and similar track in the voice of Anup Ghosal).
Playing the role of kids, Urmila Mantodkar and Jugal Hansraaj have made the team of the movie very strong and emphatic. 
In my own words, successful movie is like a chair that has the pillars of a good direction, good acting, good story and good melody. This movie doesn't lack in any of them.

Wednesday, September 17, 2014

Special Investigation Team (SIT) on black money: actions so far.

Entertaining the request of the Indian Ministry of External Affairs, the information confirmed by Swiss Ministry of External Affairs reveals that in a ‘White Paper on Black Money in India' report, published in May 2012, the Swiss National Bank estimates that the total amount of deposits in all Swiss banks, at the end of 2010, by citizens of India were Rs 9295 crore or $2.1 billion. 
With the efforts of the new government in the formation of the SIT on black money and in revealing certain names, there seems to be a new dawn for the Indian economy and the common people. 

Sources of Black Money.

Following activities are the major sources of black money or the unaccounted illegal money:
  1. illegal trade, 
  2. smuggling, 
  3. trafficking, 
  4. terrorism, 
  5. counterfeit currency, 
  6. corruption, 
  7. arms trafficking, etc. 

Why bringing back black money has become essential?

The black money has been one of the major reason for foreign debt in India and consequentially for high fiscal deficit as the tax evasion has deeply effected Government's revenueThis has given birth to a parallel economy (it is an informal economy, in which, economic activity are neither taxed nor monitored by a government, contrasted with a formal economy) in the country, which has encouraged corruption deep in Indian society. According to certain estimates if this money is brought back:
  1. the entire foreign debt can be repaid in 24 hours. 
  2. If all the black money circulating in the economy is flowed back into the national economy of the country, there will a substantial rise in the real incomes of the people and the national income of the country. 

Journey of the SIT.

The whole journey to unearth the black money stashed abroad was initiated in 2009, when the eminent jurist and former Law Minister Ram Jethmalani and some citizens filed a writ petition in the Supreme Court to bring back the black money.


  • The Supreme Court asked the Government why the names of the persons who have stashed money in the Liechtenstein Bank (Germany) have not been disclosed.
  • Same year, the SC ordered the constitution of the SIT, which was to be headed by the former Supreme Court judge B. P. Jeevan Reddy, who would also monitor the investigation.
  • This order was challenged by the Central Government, through interlocutory application. The bench consisting of Justice Altamas Kabir and S S Nijjar gave split verdict, in which the former allowed the petition, whereas the latter declined it.


  • In the April month, the Government disclosed to the Supreme Court 26 names of the holders of black money in the Liechtenstein Bank (Germany), which could become possible after the German authorities complied with the Indo-German Double Taxation Avoidance Agreement signed in 1996 (Section 90 of the Income Tax Act, 1961 allows such agreement by the Government of India).
  • In the month of May, the SIT was formed by the new Central Government, with M. B. Shah, the former Supreme Court judge as its head.
  • In August, the SIT submitted its first report to the Supreme Court.

SIT empowering the Enforcement Directorate (ED).

The recent action by the SIT reveals that it has empowered the ED to share information regarding the irregularities of the exporting firms and individuals in filing their Export Outstanding (XOS) statement. This statement is compulsorily filed with the RBI, failure of which may hint the situation of foreign exchange violations or hawala dealings. 
Earlier, RBI could share this information with the Directorate of Revenue Intelligence and Customs Department. But since, the ED is the highest authority in forex sector, this empowerment by SIT was must.

Monday, September 15, 2014

Rolls Royce Era (1904 - 1969)

The flowchart has been created by me to explain which models were abolished and which were brought in place of it.
It is not the complete chart it shows the era of Rolls Royce from 1904 to 1968.
Click on the chart to enlarge it.

Saturday, September 13, 2014

Crossword Puzzle: Poverty and Economics

2. Created by Max O. Lorenz in 1905 for measuring relative poverty.

3. Amartya Sen first time measured the intensity of poverty, the name of the index is called _____________ of Poverty.

4. The first Director-General of the FAO, measured the absolute poverty first time in the world in 1945.

6. First time the poverty estimate for the developing nations was done by _________ in 1990.
9. Developed by Corrado Gini in 1912 for measuring relative poverty.

1. In 1962, it drew the first poverty line for India.

5. This committee on poverty estimation was appointed in 1989 and it submitted its report in 1993.

7. This committee submitted its report in 2009. It also included the factors affecting the quality of life (such as education, health, basic amenities etc.)

8. This committee was set up in 1979, which drew poverty line on the basis of nutritional requirement of rural and urban areas.

Sunday, August 31, 2014

Assam-Nagaland border row: facts and efforts.

The North-Eastern part of the Indian territory has been in news since the decade of 1940s. Ever since the Government of India took a pragmatic step to unify the territories of India, there has been some conflict. 
One of such conflicts involved the states of Assam and Nagaland. 
There was a clear demarcation of boundary between the Ahom (now Assam) people and the Nagas. After the advent of the British Government in 1826, the commercial interest of the Birtish gave birth to conflict. 
In this post, I will explain the causes of conflict and role that was played by the British regime in accentuating the conflict.

Interest of the trade and commerce of the British.

Looking into the general aspect of Nagland-Assam boundary dispute, it is the dispute regarding demand for return of forest and other areas, of which Nagas have the ownership but were transferred and included within the neighbouring districts of Assam by the then British Government of India. It was done:
  1. for expansion of tea gardens; 
  2. to convert the forests owned by Nagas into Reserved forests so that it can be used for extraction and exploitation of valuable species of timber available in the areas.
These reasons led to the violent protests against the encroachment of the Naga area by the British.

The protests and Nine Point Agreement.

For the first time the Naga people had a talk on the border issue with the representative of the then British Indian Government Sir Akbar Hydari, the then Governor of Assam in Kohima on 27 to 29 June, 1947. Consequently, an Agreement known as the ‘NINE POINT AGREEMENT’ was drawn up, wherein there was a promise to restore all the forests transferred out of Naga Hills and to bring all the Naga inhabited areas under one unified administrative unit. But it remained unfulfilled. As a result, serious agitation was launched throughout the Naga territory. The first two General Election of the Country were boycotted by the Nagas; the District Council which was set up under the 6th. Schedule of the Constitution was also rejected by the Nagas and the people organized themselves for armed confrontation.

16 Point Memorandum.

1960- The Naga People’s Convention (NPC) was held in August 1957 in Kohima, as a result a "16 Point Memorandum" was presented to the Prime Minister of India in Delhi in 1960 by a delegation of the NPC. When during the discussion, the question of creating a separate State for Naga areas emerged, the Nagas demanded:
  1. The return to Nagaland all the Reserved Forests transferred from the Naha Hills to Assam during the British Regime (Point 12 of the Memorandum). 
  2. The consolidation of the contiguous Naga inhabited areas to form a part of the new State (Under Point 13 of the Memorandum).
The representative of the Government of India pointed out that if Naga delegation wants a new state, first the boundary of the new State have to be stated in the First Schedule of the Constitution. Under Regulation 6 of 1957 and Nagaland Act 27 of 1962, the 3 Districts of Kohima, Mokokchung and Tuensang were notified in the schedule which would form part of the State of Nagaland without defining precise boundary. 
The delegation was advised to take up border issue under the provision of Article 3 and 4 of the Constitution of India after accepting the State.
Thus, after the final agreement was arrived at in July 1960, the then Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru, on 1st. August 1960 announced in the Parliament, the Government of India’s decision to establish ‘Nagaland’ a State of India comprising the territory of the then existing Naga Hills Tuensang Area.

Though the Government of India could not make definite arrangement before Nagaland became a state, on the questions of restoration of transferred areas and merger of contiguous areas inhabited by Nagas, the issue was kept open for future settlement under the provisions of the Constitution.
Nagas accepted Statehood in the hope that the Government of India would act upon the terms of the agreement and would take immediate action to re-adjust the boundaries between the two States of Assam and Nagaland by returning all the reserved forests and other areas transferred out of the then Naga Hills to Assam. But there has been failure on the part of the Government as for over half a century, Naga people have been waiting without any solution to the problem in sight.  
This has given birth to intense conflicts between Nagas and people of Assam.

Efforts made.

  1. KVK Sundaram Commission (1971) and Shashtri Commission (1985) gave recommendations but were rejected by Nagaland, following which, Assam moved the SC. The border dispute between Assam and Nagaland is being mediated by the boundary commission set up under the direction of the SC.
  2. The Supreme Court in its judgment of 25.9.2006 appointed a Local Commission for identification of boundaries of the States of Assam-Nagaland and Assam-Arunachal Pradesh. 
  3. While hearing an application filed by Government of Nagaland before the Supreme Court, the Court its order dated 20.8.2010, interalia, directed that apart from continuation of the Local Commission, possibility to resolve the issue through mediation may also be explored and for this purpose appointed two Co-mediators. The meeting of the mediators in regard to boundary issues between Assam and Nagaland are continuing. Last meeting of mediators with the States of Assam and Nagaland was held in 2013. The Local Commission is continuing its hearing in regard to Assam and Arunachal Pradesh. 

Thursday, August 28, 2014

Accountability and Independence of Judiciary: Impact of Judicial Appointment Commission Bill, 2014 on these two aspects.

Accountability and Independence are considered two sides of the same coin. If one is present the other has to be there to ensure a balanced framework for smooth and effective functioning of the Indian Judiciary. But the basic issue relating to concoction of the two aspects seems really a tough job for the policy makers on one hand and legal experts on the other hand. The debates on setting up of a Judicial Appointment Commission through Judicial Appointment Commission (JAC) Bill, 2013 have got a lot of media coverage but what still remains unsettled are the questions raised on its constitutionality and to what extent can this step by the government would go on to achieve the objectives it has been formulated for.
Separation of power is said to be one of the most fundamental features of constitutional setup in our country. The fountain-head of the power is the Constitution itself. The basic reason behind this doctrine was to ensure non - interference of other bodies of the government in the Judicial process. Now it becomes imperative on our part to raise this question that whether the appointment of Judges should also be kept out of the purview of the government control while conforming to the basic principle behind the doctrine of Separation of Power? Can it be considered feasible for India to allow the decision making body to have absolute powers in appointment of Judges? This is something which can be answered in both affirmative and negative. If it is in affirmative i.e if judiciary is allowed to have absolute powers without government interference then although it would result in providing independence to the Judiciary but at the same time that would lead to monopoly and nepotism and this is one of the major effects which the experts think have been resulted by the collegium system. And if it is answered in negative, there would be a lot of government interference without Judiciary having an upper hand in its own affairs. The requirement of checks and balances and accountability of the judiciary would be met but it would not allow effective functioning of the Judicial System.  Therefore the call for the day is to strike a balance between the two aspects and to come up with such parameters that seek for reforms in the appointment process.
The existing Collegium system has been condemned by the various experts on the grounds that it is wholly and largely dependent on the decision taken by CJI and four senior most Judges of the Supreme Court while appointing judges to the Supreme Court. In the case of appointment of judges to the High Court, again the collegiums system constitutes members only from the judiciary i.e CJI and 2 senior-most judges of the Supreme Court. This has put the process of appointment of judges in the arena of doubt and dilemma thereby rendering it ineffective and unjust. But the debate does not end here for the basic reason that the Bill, 2013 proposed for setting up of Judicial Appointment Commission is equally criticized by the legal experts and eminent jurists stating that the new proposed collegium constituting 2 eminent persons selected by the Prime Minister, the CJI and the Leader of Opposition would again not serve the purpose as desired so.
Thus, to strike a balance between the two requirements, the model must be judiciously adopted that it not only encompasses members of the Judiciary and the government but also people from non legal background and also other stakeholders so that diversified forum is formed to appoint the Judges. Also, instead of limiting the number of members of the commission to just 5, the number should be increased to more than double of what is otherwise proposed in the new bill so that the appointment is done by a larger group which to a great extent diminish the possibility of arbitrariness and biased approach on the part of the commission.
The government should take this as an opportunity to make Judiciary as transparent as it can by keeping a close check on the initial process i.e the decision of who would be the upcoming set of Judges. Although prima facie it looks not more than a mere administrative function, yet the consequences and the reach it would lead to would to a great extent determine the future of a large number of people who always seek to get justice. It is the duty of the Parliamentarians to secure and safeguard the independent nature of Judiciary and this can be done by providing a proper model for the appointment of the Judges and not by directly interfering and taking away the powers in the pretext of formulating a commission. It should not be made a sham process which is what the bill of 2013 is leading to.

Wednesday, August 20, 2014

Notable Role (12/1000): Nawazuddin Siddiqi (Kick).

Watching this movie was a good experience for me as far as the role of Nawazuddin Siddiqi goes. He played the role of villain named Shiv Ghazra. His performance in the movie reminds me of the Joker (the legendary character in the movie industry across the globe.
Being famous for his performance in the Gangs of Wasseypur series, where he became famous as Faizal Khan, he deserved more chances. Kick was right choice for him. His style of dialogue delivery, which involved his strange laughter and songs of old Bollywood classic movies, makes him a remarkable character.
In a nutshell, I found the great actor, who can emulate the legendary Joker of The Dark Knight.

Saturday, August 09, 2014

Article about working of GTO.

Friends, I came across a very useful article about the definition and and working of the orbits, in which the satellites are placed. Here is the excerpt of the post by Jason Davis.

How to get a satellite to geostationary orbit.

As I wrote about the GSLV-D5 mission, I was tempted to include this standard informational line, punched directly out of the press kit: 
The satellite was placed into a geostationary transfer orbit with a perigee of about 180 kilometers, an apogee of about 36,000 kilometers and an inclination of 19.3 degrees. 
But unless you’re familiar with basic orbital mechanics, that sentence doesn’t have much meaning. What’s a transfer orbit? Is there a difference between geostationary and geosynchronous? Why is there such a wide range between the perigee and apogee?
For help explaining all of this, I turned to Mike Loucks of The Astrogator’s Guild. The Astrogator’s Guild uses a software package called STK/Astrogator from Analytical Graphics Inc. that is used to help spacecraft mission managers plan the trajectories of a variety of space missions. The software has been used on numerous NASA missions, including WMAP, LRO, LCROSS, New Horizons, Messenger, LADEE and MAVEN. 
The first concept I want to tackle is the difference between a geosynchronous and geostationary orbit. Although these terms are often used interchangeably, they are not the same thing:
Geosynchonous Orbit (GEO) takes a satellite around the Earth at a rate of once per day, keeping it roughly in the same area over the ground. 
Geostationary Orbit (GSO) is a geosynchronous orbit with an inclination of zero, meaning, it lies on the equator.
All geostationary satellites are geosynchronous. Not all geosynchronous satellites are geostationary.
Think of it like this: the “synchronous” part of geosynchronous describes the rate of the satellite’s orbit but says nothing about its inclination—the orbit’s angle with respect to the equator. A geosynchronous satellite with a non-zero inclination will trace out a figure eight in the sky as it dips above and below the equator. 
The “stationary” part of geostationary describes how a satellite in this orbit remains fixed with respect to an observer on the ground. This is an ideal orbit for communications satellites, since ground-based antennas can remain pointed at the same spot in the sky.
The Earth's gravity field

NASA / University of Texas Center for Space Research
The Earth's gravity field
This animation, created with data from the GRACE spacecraft, shows the variances in Earth's gravity field.
It’s also important to remember that even geostationary satellites drift over time as they are tugged on by the moon and sun’s gravity. For that matter, the Earth’s gravity isn’t uniform, either, so the satellite needs an onboard fuel supply to make slight corrections over time. 
What, then, is a transfer orbit? Rockets sending payloads to geosynchronous and geostationary orbits drop off their payload in transfer orbits, halfway points en route to the satellite’s final position. From transfer orbit, a satellite conducts engine burns to circularize its orbit and change its inclination. Both SES-8 and GSAT-14 were bound for geostationary orbits, so we say that the Falcon and GSLV launched their payloads to geostationary transfer orbits.
What does a geostationary transfer orbit look like, and how does the satellite get from there into its final position? Of the two satellites I mentioned, GSAT-14 took the more common route, so we’ll use it as an example. (SES-8 used a supersynchrounous transfer orbit, where the orbital period is longer one day.)
Mike doesn’t have all the parameters required to make an exact GSAT-14 simulation, so he’s made a few assumptions and created a virtual cocktail napkin outline for us to follow. 
Let’s revisit the line I struck from my GSLV article:
The satellite was placed into a geostationary transfer orbit with a perigee of about 180 kilometers, an apogee of about 36,000 kilometers and an inclination of 19.3 degrees. 
GSAT-14 launched out of India’s Satish Dhawan Space Centre. The mission began in powered flight under the GSLV, which is represented by the red line:
GSAT-14 powered flight and coast

Mike Loucks / SEE
GSAT-14 powered flight and coast
When it hit the equator, the GSLV finished its share of the work and released GSAT-14. This point in the orbit is our descending node. Ascending and descending nodes are just fancy ways of saying you crossed the equator in either a southbound (descending) or northbound (ascending) direction. For a geostationary transfer orbit, the descending node is also at perigee, the orbit’s lowest point. Here, GSAT's altitude is 180 kilometers. For comparison, the International Space Station has a typical altitude of just over 400 kilometers. 
GSAT-14 now coasts as it dips beneath the equator to a latitude of 19.3 degrees (our inclination), and starts heading back north. As we cross the equator again, we’re at the ascending node, and we’re also at apogee, the highest point of our orbit—36,000 kilometers above the Earth. For perspective, the Earth’s radius is 6,400 kilometers and the average distance to the moon is 384,000 kilometers. In other words, we’re five-and-a-half radii above the planet, and roughly one-tenth of the way to the moon.  
Here’s what that looks like from two different angles:
GSAT-14 approaching apogee
Mike Loucks / SEE
GSAT-14 approaching apogee
GSAT-14 first apogee
Mike Loucks / SEE
GSAT-14 first apogee
Our orbit is still fairly elliptical at this point. That’s no good—we want to circularize the orbit and lower its inclination to zero. We can accomplish both of these tasks by conducting a series of engine burns at apogee. According to the Indian Space Research Organization, GSAT-14 used three Apogee Motor Firings (AMFs) to get into its final orbit. For simplicity’s sake, we’ll assume a burn happens each time the satellite hits apogee. 
Why do three burns, instead of one long burn? Mike says that in some cases, single, long-duration burns can be less efficient, and there may also be limitations on a spacecraft’s engines that prevent them from firing for too long. We’ll also assume each of the three burns gets us a third of the way to our final orbit. 
After the first burn, our orbit becomes the pink line:
GSAT-14 after first engine burn (polar view)
Mike Loucks / SEE
GSAT-14 after first engine burn (polar view)
GSAT-14 after first engine burn (equatorial view)
Mike Loucks / SEE
GSAT-14 after first engine burn (equatorial view).
After a second burn at apogee, our orbit becomes the teal line: 
GSAT-14 after second engine burn (polar view)
Mike Loucks / SEE
GSAT-14 after second engine burn (polar view)
GSAT-14 after second engine burn (equatorial view)
Mike Loucks / SEE
GSAT-14 after second engine burn (equatorial view)
And after a third burn at apogee, our orbit becomes the green line: 
GSAT-14 after final engine burn (polar view)
Mike Loucks / SEE
GSAT-14 after final engine burn (polar view).
GSAT-14 after final engine burn (equatorial view)
Mike Loucks / SEE
GSAT-14 after final engine burn (equatorial view)
And there we are! One geostationary satellite roughly 36,000 kilometers high, positioned at 74 degrees East, ready to provide communications services to the people of India. Here’s a video that puts it all together:

Monday, August 04, 2014

Kick: Nawazuddin delivers the real kick

This Eid the Rambo Khan's, i.e, Salman bhaai's fans expected a real kick ass movie. The trailer was also promising. But the movie can be appreciated on the count of the theme of welfare of the poor. 
Obviously, some stunts are illogical, specially the stunt in which the cycle crosses the track, leaving Devil behind. This stunt has been criticized a lot over the social media. But some stunts are good (like the scene in which Devil escapes the building in Poland).
But if I describe about the acting, it is Nawazuddin Siddiqi, who steals the show. In fact, in this movie, I see him as the Indian version of Joker (of famous Hollywood flick The Dark Knight).
His dialogue delivery is also full of fun and can be enjoyed again and again. This movie belongs to him.

Monday, July 28, 2014

आँखें न मूंदो मेरी अभी

कुछ सपने देखने दो मुझे
कुछ तो मुझे आगे बढ़ने दो। 
आख़र क्या है क्या पता मुझे 
कुछ तो पन्ने मुझे पढ़ने दो। 
क्या खुशबुएँ हैं बाग़ों में 
न मैं उनसे रूबरू हुयी। 
क्या कह गयी हवा मुझसे,
मेरी न ही गुफ़्तग़ू हुयी। 
मेरे इस राह में काँटे तो 
हैं बिछाए जो दुश्मन सभी। 
कि मैं इनमें अब उबर सकूँ,
आँखें न मूंदो मेरी अभी। 

क्यों है ये डर कि तू सोचे,
न जी सकूंगी मैं और यहाँ,
जो न महफूज़ मैं तेरे आंचल में,
हूँ महफ़ूज़ मैं और कहाँ ?
हैं जिन्होंने सब दस्तूर लिखे,
क्या हैसियत है उन सब की?
कि है दूबर जीना मेरा 
छूटी ये सोच जाने कब की। 
क्यों लगता है कि दूजे दर पे,
न मिलेगा तेरा प्यार कभी ?
कि ख़ोज सकूँ मैं ऐसा प्यार 
आँखें न मूंदो मेरी अभी। 

Saturday, July 26, 2014

है यही दास्तां अंधेरे की

सब कुछ ही खो गया है जिसमें,
पहचान सो गयी है जिसमें,
अस्तित्व नहीं जहाँ रंगों का, 
जहाँ छोर दिखे न अंगों का,
हमदर्द जो गुनहगारों का,
कोख़ है काले कारोबारों का,
निगली जिसने परछाईं है,
बुनता है जो ख़्वाब हज़ारों का,

माशूख है चोर-लुटेरे की। 
है यही दास्तां अंधेरे की।  

जिसमें हैं घुले से रंग कई,
सदियां भी जिसमें डूब गयी। 
रौशनी से जिसकी रंजिश है। 
इससे ही उबरना ख़्वाहिश है। 
इसकी गहराई के भीतर, 
कुछ राज़ भी छिपकर रहते हैं,
जिनका सच कभी न खुल सका,
ऐसा कुछ लोग भी कहते हैं। 

एक नयी शुरुआत सवेरे की। 
है यही दास्तां अंधेरे की। 

Tuesday, July 22, 2014

Song on my mind: Hamdard from Ek Villain

There are too many reasons to like this movie. But the songs of this movie specially this song has a special feeling in terms of music.
So, friends song on my mind is Hamdard from Ek Villain.


Pal.. do pal ki kyun hai zindagi
Iss pyaar ko hai sadiyan kaafi nahi
Toh khuda se maang loon
Mohallat main ek nai
Rehanaa hai bas yahaan 
Ab door tujhse jana nahi...
Jo tu mera humdard hai
Jo tu mera humdard hai
Suhaana har dard hai
Jo tu mera humdard hai

Teri muskuraahate hain taakat meri
Mujhko enhi se ummid mili
Chaahe kare koi sitam ye jahaan
Enmein hi sadaa hifaajat meri
Zindagaani badi khoobsurat hui
Jannat ab aur kya hogi kahin
Jo tu mera hamdard hai
Jo tu mera hamdard hai
Suhaana har dard hai
Jo tu mera hamdard hai

Teri dhadkanon se hai zindagi meri
Khwaahisein teri ab duaayein meri
Kitna anokha bandhan hai ye
Teri meri jaan jo ek hui
Lautunga yahaan tere paas mein haan
Vaada hai mera, mar bhi jaaun kahin
Jo tu mera hamdard hai
Jo tu mera hamdard hai
Suhaana har dard hai
Jo tu mera hamdard hai

Saturday, July 05, 2014

Must Watch: Matrubhoomi: A Nation Without Women

Whether hit or flop, the movies like Matruboomi (2003) are remembered and acclaimed because of various reasons. This movie depicts the reality of the Indian society and exposes its path of progress in future. 
Discussing the subject matter of the movie, it can be said that this movie deserves imminent attention as the declining sex ratio is the cause of concern for country like ours. Apart from a dedicated team of real actors like Pankaj Jha, Sudhir Paney, Piyush Mishra and Shushant Singh, this movie deserves accolades because of direction by Manish Jha, which involves imaginative skill.
I am impressed with his focus on change of the attitude of the society regarding dowry system (as this time bride's family is being paid to get her married), which is similar to the pattern of sale of a girl.
In a nutshell, this movie is must watch for social cause and awareness as these movies mirror the Indian patriarchal society.

Journey to our Constitution: Indian Councils Act 1861.

This Act undone effect of the 1833 Act inasmuch as it restored the power of legislation to the Governments of Madras and Bombay. Also it made notable changes in the composition of the Governor General's council for executive & legislative purposes.

Changes brought:

Executive purposes.

Council of the Governor General was expanded and a fifth ordinary member was added. Now it included total 7 members (other two members being the Governor General and the commander in Chief).

Legislative purposes.

For the legislative purposes, not less than 6 and not more than 12 members were additionally to be nominated (comprising of both official and non-official members) by the Governor General and they were to hold the office for two years. Out of these, not less than half were required to be Non-Official. 

Similar provisions were enacted for the Governor's Council in provinces of British India.

Portfolio system:

With the Indian Councils Act for the first time Portfolio system started. Each member of the Council of the Governor General was allocated portfolio of a particular department. Lord Canning (1856-1858 as Governor general, 1858-1862 as Viceroy) was the First to start a Portfolio system.
Before the adoption of the portfolio system in the Government of India, the whole business of the Indian governmental business was carried out by the Governor-General-in Council (earlier name of Cabinet Secretariat), As the amount and complexity of business of the Government increased, the work of the various departments was distributed amongst the members of the Council: only the more important cases were dealt with by the Governor-General or the Council collectively.


  1. Though the non-official members were added, the councils were neither a deliberative nor a representative body as these members could only consider the proposals kept before them by the Governor-General. But they could not criticise it.
  2. The Governor -General was given overriding powers inasmuch as it enjoyed the powers of prior sanction, without which a bill could not be introduced in the assembly. Also, it enjoyed the ordinance making power in situation of emergency, having the force of Act of the Council. He could also veto a bill after it was passed.